Overview

You can use Azure Media Services to deliver MPEG-DASH, Smooth Streaming, and HTTP Live Streaming (HLS) streams protected with the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) by using 128-bit encryption keys or PlayReady digital rights management (DRM). With Media Services, you also can deliver DASH streams encrypted with Widevine DRM. Both PlayReady and Widevine are encrypted per the common encryption (ISO/IEC 23001-7 CENC) specification.

Media Services also provides a key/license delivery service from which clients can obtain AES keys or PlayReady/Widevine licenses to play the encrypted content.

If you want Media Services to encrypt an asset, you need to associate an encryption key (CommonEncryption or EnvelopeEncryption) with the asset. For more information, see Create ContentKeys with .NET. You also need to configure authorization policies for the key (as described in this article).

When a stream is requested by a player, Media Services uses the specified key to dynamically encrypt your content by using AES or DRM encryption. To decrypt the stream, the player requests the key from the key delivery service. To determine whether the user is authorized to get the key, the service evaluates the authorization policies that you specified for the key.

Media Services supports multiple ways of authenticating users who make key requests. The content key authorization policy can have one or more authorization restrictions. The options are open or token restriction. The token-restricted policy must be accompanied by a token issued by a security token service (STS). Media Services supports tokens in the simple web token (SWT) format and the JSON Web Token (JWT) format.

Media Services doesn't provide STS. You can create a custom STS or use Azure Access Control Service to issue tokens. The STS must be configured to create a token signed with the specified key and issue claims that you specified in the token restriction configuration (as described in this article). If the token is valid and the claims in the token match those configured for the content key, the Media Services key delivery service returns the encryption key to the client.

For more information, see the following articles:

Some considerations apply

  • When your Media Services account is created, a default streaming endpoint is added to your account in the "Stopped" state. To start streaming your content and take advantage of dynamic packaging and dynamic encryption, your streaming endpoint must be in the "Running" state.
  • Your asset must contain a set of adaptive bitrate MP4s or adaptive bitrate Smooth Streaming files. For more information, see Encode an asset.
  • Upload and encode your assets by using the AssetCreationOptions.StorageEncrypted option.
  • If you plan to have multiple content keys that require the same policy configuration, we recommend that you create a single authorization policy and reuse it with multiple content keys.
  • The key delivery service caches ContentKeyAuthorizationPolicy and its related objects (policy options and restrictions) for 15 minutes. You can create ContentKeyAuthorizationPolicy and specify to use a token restriction, test it, and then update the policy to the open restriction. This process takes roughly 15 minutes before the policy switches to the open version of the policy.
  • If you add or update your asset's delivery policy, you must delete any existing locator and create a new locator.
  • Currently, you can't encrypt progressive downloads.
  • A Media Services streaming endpoint sets the value of the CORS 'Access-Control-Allow-Origin' header in preflight response as the wildcard '*'. This value works well with most players, including Azure Media Player, Roku and JWPlayer, and others. However, some players that use dashjs don't work because, with the credentials mode set to "include", XMLHttpRequest in their dashjs doesn't allow the wildcard "*" as the value of 'Access-Control-Allow-Origin'. As a workaround to this limitation in dashjs, if you host your client from a single domain, Media Services can specify that domain in the preflight response header. For assistance, open a support ticket through the Azure portal.

AES-128 dynamic encryption

Open restriction

Open restriction means the system delivers the key to anyone who makes a key request. This restriction might be useful for testing purposes.

The following example creates an open authorization policy and adds it to the content key:

    static public void AddOpenAuthorizationPolicy(IContentKey contentKey)
    {
        // Create ContentKeyAuthorizationPolicy with Open restrictions
        // and create authorization policy
        IContentKeyAuthorizationPolicy policy = _context.
        ContentKeyAuthorizationPolicies.
        CreateAsync("Open Authorization Policy").Result;

        List<ContentKeyAuthorizationPolicyRestriction> restrictions =
            new List<ContentKeyAuthorizationPolicyRestriction>();

        ContentKeyAuthorizationPolicyRestriction restriction =
            new ContentKeyAuthorizationPolicyRestriction
            {
                Name = "HLS Open Authorization Policy",
                KeyRestrictionType = (int)ContentKeyRestrictionType.Open,
                Requirements = null // no requirements needed for HLS
            };

        restrictions.Add(restriction);

        IContentKeyAuthorizationPolicyOption policyOption =
            _context.ContentKeyAuthorizationPolicyOptions.Create(
            "policy", 
            ContentKeyDeliveryType.BaselineHttp, 
            restrictions, 
            "");

        policy.Options.Add(policyOption);

        // Add ContentKeyAutorizationPolicy to ContentKey
        contentKey.AuthorizationPolicyId = policy.Id;
        IContentKey updatedKey = contentKey.UpdateAsync().Result;
        Console.WriteLine("Adding Key to Asset: Key ID is " + updatedKey.Id);
    }

Token restriction

This section describes how to create a content key authorization policy and associate it with the content key. The authorization policy describes what authorization requirements must be met to determine if the user is authorized to receive the key. For example, does the verification key list contain the key that the token was signed with?

To configure the token restriction option, you need to use an XML to describe the token's authorization requirements. The token restriction configuration XML must conform to the following XML schema:

#### Token restriction schema
    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
    <xs:schema xmlns:tns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/Azure/MediaServices/KeyDelivery/TokenRestrictionTemplate/v1" elementFormDefault="qualified" targetNamespace="http://schemas.microsoft.com/Azure/MediaServices/KeyDelivery/TokenRestrictionTemplate/v1" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema">
      <xs:complexType name="TokenClaim">
        <xs:sequence>
          <xs:element name="ClaimType" nillable="true" type="xs:string" />
          <xs:element minOccurs="0" name="ClaimValue" nillable="true" type="xs:string" />
        </xs:sequence>
      </xs:complexType>
      <xs:element name="TokenClaim" nillable="true" type="tns:TokenClaim" />
      <xs:complexType name="TokenRestrictionTemplate">
        <xs:sequence>
          <xs:element minOccurs="0" name="AlternateVerificationKeys" nillable="true" type="tns:ArrayOfTokenVerificationKey" />
          <xs:element name="Audience" nillable="true" type="xs:anyURI" />
          <xs:element name="Issuer" nillable="true" type="xs:anyURI" />
          <xs:element name="PrimaryVerificationKey" nillable="true" type="tns:TokenVerificationKey" />
          <xs:element minOccurs="0" name="RequiredClaims" nillable="true" type="tns:ArrayOfTokenClaim" />
        </xs:sequence>
      </xs:complexType>
      <xs:element name="TokenRestrictionTemplate" nillable="true" type="tns:TokenRestrictionTemplate" />
      <xs:complexType name="ArrayOfTokenVerificationKey">
        <xs:sequence>
          <xs:element minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded" name="TokenVerificationKey" nillable="true" type="tns:TokenVerificationKey" />
        </xs:sequence>
      </xs:complexType>
      <xs:element name="ArrayOfTokenVerificationKey" nillable="true" type="tns:ArrayOfTokenVerificationKey" />
      <xs:complexType name="TokenVerificationKey">
        <xs:sequence />
      </xs:complexType>
      <xs:element name="TokenVerificationKey" nillable="true" type="tns:TokenVerificationKey" />
      <xs:complexType name="ArrayOfTokenClaim">
        <xs:sequence>
          <xs:element minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded" name="TokenClaim" nillable="true" type="tns:TokenClaim" />
        </xs:sequence>
      </xs:complexType>
      <xs:element name="ArrayOfTokenClaim" nillable="true" type="tns:ArrayOfTokenClaim" />
      <xs:complexType name="SymmetricVerificationKey">
        <xs:complexContent mixed="false">
          <xs:extension base="tns:TokenVerificationKey">
            <xs:sequence>
              <xs:element name="KeyValue" nillable="true" type="xs:base64Binary" />
            </xs:sequence>
          </xs:extension>
        </xs:complexContent>
      </xs:complexType>
      <xs:element name="SymmetricVerificationKey" nillable="true" type="tns:SymmetricVerificationKey" />
    </xs:schema>

When you configure the token-restricted policy, you must specify the primary verification key, issuer, and audience parameters. The primary verification key contains the key that the token was signed with. The issuer is the STS that issues the token. The audience (sometimes called scope) describes the intent of the token or the resource the token authorizes access to. The Media Services key delivery service validates that these values in the token match the values in the template.

When you use the Media Services SDK for .NET, you can use the TokenRestrictionTemplate class to generate the restriction token. The following example creates an authorization policy with a token restriction. In this example, the client must present a token that contains a signing key (VerificationKey), a token issuer, and required claims.

    public static string AddTokenRestrictedAuthorizationPolicy(IContentKey contentKey)
    {
        string tokenTemplateString = GenerateTokenRequirements();

        IContentKeyAuthorizationPolicy policy = _context.
                                ContentKeyAuthorizationPolicies.
                                CreateAsync("HLS token restricted authorization policy").Result;

        List<ContentKeyAuthorizationPolicyRestriction> restrictions =
                new List<ContentKeyAuthorizationPolicyRestriction>();

        ContentKeyAuthorizationPolicyRestriction restriction =
                new ContentKeyAuthorizationPolicyRestriction
                {
                    Name = "Token Authorization Policy",
                    KeyRestrictionType = (int)ContentKeyRestrictionType.TokenRestricted,
                    Requirements = tokenTemplateString
                };

        restrictions.Add(restriction);

        //You could have multiple options 
        IContentKeyAuthorizationPolicyOption policyOption =
            _context.ContentKeyAuthorizationPolicyOptions.Create(
                "Token option for HLS",
                ContentKeyDeliveryType.BaselineHttp,
                restrictions,
                null  // no key delivery data is needed for HLS
                );

        policy.Options.Add(policyOption);

        // Add ContentKeyAutorizationPolicy to ContentKey
        contentKey.AuthorizationPolicyId = policy.Id;
        IContentKey updatedKey = contentKey.UpdateAsync().Result;
        Console.WriteLine("Adding Key to Asset: Key ID is " + updatedKey.Id);

        return tokenTemplateString;
    }

    static private string GenerateTokenRequirements()
    {
        TokenRestrictionTemplate template = new TokenRestrictionTemplate(TokenType.SWT);

        template.PrimaryVerificationKey = new SymmetricVerificationKey();
        template.AlternateVerificationKeys.Add(new SymmetricVerificationKey());
            template.Audience = _sampleAudience.ToString();
            template.Issuer = _sampleIssuer.ToString();

        template.RequiredClaims.Add(TokenClaim.ContentKeyIdentifierClaim);

        return TokenRestrictionTemplateSerializer.Serialize(template);
    }

Test token

To get a test token based on the token restriction that was used for the key authorization policy, do the following:

    // Deserializes a string containing an Xml representation of a TokenRestrictionTemplate
    // back into a TokenRestrictionTemplate class instance.
    TokenRestrictionTemplate tokenTemplate =
        TokenRestrictionTemplateSerializer.Deserialize(tokenTemplateString);

    // Generate a test token based on the the data in the given TokenRestrictionTemplate.
    // Note, you need to pass the key id Guid because we specified 
    // TokenClaim.ContentKeyIdentifierClaim in during the creation of TokenRestrictionTemplate.
    Guid rawkey = EncryptionUtils.GetKeyIdAsGuid(key.Id);

    //The GenerateTestToken method returns the token without the word “Bearer” in front
    //so you have to add it in front of the token string. 
    string testToken = TokenRestrictionTemplateSerializer.GenerateTestToken(tokenTemplate, null, rawkey);
    Console.WriteLine("The authorization token is:\nBearer {0}", testToken);
    Console.WriteLine();

PlayReady dynamic encryption

You can use Media Services to configure the rights and restrictions that you want the PlayReady DRM runtime to enforce when a user tries to play back protected content.

When you protect your content with PlayReady, one of the things you need to specify in your authorization policy is an XML string that defines the PlayReady license template. In the Media Services SDK for .NET, the PlayReadyLicenseResponseTemplate and PlayReadyLicenseTemplate classes help you define the PlayReady license template.

To learn how to encrypt your content with PlayReady and Widevine, see Use PlayReady and/or Widevine dynamic common encryption.

Open restriction

Open restriction means the system delivers the key to anyone who makes a key request. This restriction might be useful for testing purposes.

The following example creates an open authorization policy and adds it to the content key:

    static public void AddOpenAuthorizationPolicy(IContentKey contentKey)
    {

        // Create ContentKeyAuthorizationPolicy with Open restrictions 
        // and create authorization policy          

        List<ContentKeyAuthorizationPolicyRestriction> restrictions = new List<ContentKeyAuthorizationPolicyRestriction>
        {
            new ContentKeyAuthorizationPolicyRestriction 
            { 
                Name = "Open", 
                KeyRestrictionType = (int)ContentKeyRestrictionType.Open, 
                Requirements = null
            }
        };

        // Configure PlayReady license template.
        string newLicenseTemplate = ConfigurePlayReadyLicenseTemplate();

        IContentKeyAuthorizationPolicyOption policyOption =
            _context.ContentKeyAuthorizationPolicyOptions.Create("",
                ContentKeyDeliveryType.PlayReadyLicense,
                    restrictions, newLicenseTemplate);

        IContentKeyAuthorizationPolicy contentKeyAuthorizationPolicy = _context.
                    ContentKeyAuthorizationPolicies.
                    CreateAsync("Deliver Common Content Key with no restrictions").
                    Result;


        contentKeyAuthorizationPolicy.Options.Add(policyOption);

        // Associate the content key authorization policy with the content key.
        contentKey.AuthorizationPolicyId = contentKeyAuthorizationPolicy.Id;
        contentKey = contentKey.UpdateAsync().Result;
    }

Token restriction

To configure the token restriction option, you need to use an XML to describe the token's authorization requirements. The token restriction configuration XML must conform to the XML schema shown in the "Token restriction schema" section.

    public static string AddTokenRestrictedAuthorizationPolicy(IContentKey contentKey)
    {
        string tokenTemplateString = GenerateTokenRequirements();

        IContentKeyAuthorizationPolicy policy = _context.
                                ContentKeyAuthorizationPolicies.
                                CreateAsync("HLS token restricted authorization policy").Result;

        List<ContentKeyAuthorizationPolicyRestriction> restrictions = new List<ContentKeyAuthorizationPolicyRestriction>
        {
            new ContentKeyAuthorizationPolicyRestriction 
            { 
                Name = "Token Authorization Policy", 
                KeyRestrictionType = (int)ContentKeyRestrictionType.TokenRestricted,
                Requirements = tokenTemplateString, 
            }
        };

        // Configure PlayReady license template.
        string newLicenseTemplate = ConfigurePlayReadyLicenseTemplate();

        IContentKeyAuthorizationPolicyOption policyOption =
            _context.ContentKeyAuthorizationPolicyOptions.Create("Token option",
                ContentKeyDeliveryType.PlayReadyLicense,
                    restrictions, newLicenseTemplate);

        IContentKeyAuthorizationPolicy contentKeyAuthorizationPolicy = _context.
                    ContentKeyAuthorizationPolicies.
                    CreateAsync("Deliver Common Content Key with no restrictions").
                    Result;

        policy.Options.Add(policyOption);

        // Add ContentKeyAutorizationPolicy to ContentKey
        contentKeyAuthorizationPolicy.Options.Add(policyOption);

        // Associate the content key authorization policy with the content key
        contentKey.AuthorizationPolicyId = contentKeyAuthorizationPolicy.Id;
        contentKey = contentKey.UpdateAsync().Result;

        return tokenTemplateString;
    }

    static private string GenerateTokenRequirements()
    {

        TokenRestrictionTemplate template = new TokenRestrictionTemplate(TokenType.SWT);

        template.PrimaryVerificationKey = new SymmetricVerificationKey();
        template.AlternateVerificationKeys.Add(new SymmetricVerificationKey());
            template.Audience = _sampleAudience.ToString();
            template.Issuer = _sampleIssuer.ToString();


        template.RequiredClaims.Add(TokenClaim.ContentKeyIdentifierClaim);

        return TokenRestrictionTemplateSerializer.Serialize(template);
    } 

    static private string ConfigurePlayReadyLicenseTemplate()
    {
        // The following code configures PlayReady License Template using .NET classes
        // and returns the XML string.

        //The PlayReadyLicenseResponseTemplate class represents the template for the response sent back to the end user. 
        //It contains a field for a custom data string between the license server and the application 
        //(may be useful for custom app logic) as well as a list of one or more license templates.
        PlayReadyLicenseResponseTemplate responseTemplate = new PlayReadyLicenseResponseTemplate();

        // The PlayReadyLicenseTemplate class represents a license template for creating PlayReady licenses
        // to be returned to the end users. 
        //It contains the data on the content key in the license and any rights or restrictions to be 
        //enforced by the PlayReady DRM runtime when using the content key.
        PlayReadyLicenseTemplate licenseTemplate = new PlayReadyLicenseTemplate();
        //Configure whether the license is persistent (saved in persistent storage on the client) 
        //or non-persistent (only held in memory while the player is using the license).  
        licenseTemplate.LicenseType = PlayReadyLicenseType.Nonpersistent;

        // AllowTestDevices controls whether test devices can use the license or not.  
        // If true, the MinimumSecurityLevel property of the license
        // is set to 150.  If false (the default), the MinimumSecurityLevel property of the license is set to 2000.
        licenseTemplate.AllowTestDevices = true;


        // You can also configure the Play Right in the PlayReady license by using the PlayReadyPlayRight class. 
        // It grants the user the ability to play back the content subject to the zero or more restrictions 
        // configured in the license and on the PlayRight itself (for playback specific policy). 
        // Much of the policy on the PlayRight has to do with output restrictions 
        // which control the types of outputs that the content can be played over and 
        // any restrictions that must be put in place when using a given output.
        // For example, if the DigitalVideoOnlyContentRestriction is enabled, 
        //then the DRM runtime will only allow the video to be displayed over digital outputs 
        //(analog video outputs won’t be allowed to pass the content).

        //IMPORTANT: These types of restrictions can be very powerful but can also affect the consumer experience. 
        // If the output protections are configured too restrictive, 
        // the content might be unplayable on some clients. For more information, see the PlayReady Compliance Rules document.

        // For example:
        //licenseTemplate.PlayRight.AgcAndColorStripeRestriction = new AgcAndColorStripeRestriction(1);

        responseTemplate.LicenseTemplates.Add(licenseTemplate);

        return MediaServicesLicenseTemplateSerializer.Serialize(responseTemplate);
    }

To get a test token based on the token restriction that was used for the key authorization policy, see the "Test token" section.

Types used when you define ContentKeyAuthorizationPolicy

ContentKeyRestrictionType

    public enum ContentKeyRestrictionType
    {
        Open = 0,
        TokenRestricted = 1,
        IPRestricted = 2,
    }

ContentKeyDeliveryType

    public enum ContentKeyDeliveryType
    {
      None = 0,
      PlayReadyLicense = 1,
      BaselineHttp = 2,
      Widevine = 3
    }

TokenType

    public enum TokenType
    {
        Undefined = 0,
        SWT = 1,
        JWT = 2,
    }

Read about the Azure Media Services learning paths:

Provide feedback

Use the User Voice forum to provide feedback and make suggestions on how to improve Azure Media Services. You also can go directly to one of the following categories:

Next steps

Now that you have configured the content key's authorization policy, see Configure an asset delivery policy.