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Rocker breaks the limits of Dockerfile. It adds some crucial features that are missing while keeping Docker’s original design and idea. Read the blog post about how and why it was invented.

Rocker has been rewritten from scratch and now it is much more robust! While dockramp was a proof-of-concept for a client-driven Docker builder, Rocker is a full-featured implementation.

  1. There are no context uploads and fallbacks to docker build. This makes builds faster especially for large projects.
  2. Cache lookups are much faster than Docker's implementation when you have thousands of layers.
  3. Better output: rocker reports the size of each produced layer, so you see which layers consume the most space.
  4. Works with Docker >= 1.8

What is not supported yet:

  1. Adding tar archives that are automatically extracted (as they are in Dockerfiles)

For OSX users

brew tap grammarly/tap
brew install grammarly/tap/rocker

Ensure that it is built with go 1.5.x . If not, make brew update before installing rocker.

Manual installation

Go to the releases section and download the latest binary for your platform. Then unpack the tar archive and copy the binary somewhere to your path, such as /usr/local/bin, and give it executable permissions.

Something like this:

curl -SL | tar -xzC /usr/local/bin && chmod +x /usr/local/bin/rocker

Building locally

You can build rocker locally assuming $GOPATH env variable is set:


binary will be available at $GOPATH/bin/rocker

Getting help, usage:

rocker --help
rocker build --help

It is a backward compatible replacement for Dockerfile. Yes, you can take any Dockerfile, rename it to Rockerfile and use rocker build instead of docker build. What’s the point then? No point. Unless you want to use advanced Rocker commands.

By introducing new commands, Rocker aims to solve the following use cases, which are painful with plain Docker:

  1. Mount reusable volumes on build stage, so dependency management tools may use cache between builds.
  2. Share ssh keys with build (for pulling private repos, etc.), while not leaving them in the resulting image.
  3. Build and run application in different images, be able to easily pass an artifact from one image to another, ideally have this logic in a single Dockerfile.
  4. Tag/Push images right from Dockerfiles.
  5. Pass variables from shell build command so they can be substituted to a Dockerfile.

And more. These are the most critical issues that were blocking our adoption of Docker at Grammarly.

The most challenging part is caching. While implementing those features seems to be not a big deal, it's not trivial to do that just by utilising Docker’s image cache (the one that docker build does). Actually, it is the main reason why those features are still not in Docker. With Rocker we achieve this by introducing a set of trade-offs. Search this page for "trade-off" to find out more details.

How does it work

Rocker parses the Rockerfile into an AST using the same library Docker uses for parsing Dockerfiles. Then it builds a plan out of instructions and yields a list of commands. For every command there is a function in commands.go though in the future we will make it extensible.

The more detailed documentation of internals will come later.

MOUNT /root/.gradle


MOUNT /app/mode_modules /app/bower_components


MOUNT is used to share volumes between builds, so they can be reused by tools like dependency management. There are two types of mounts:

  1. Share directory from host machine — using the format source:dest
  2. Using volume container — not using :

Volume container names are hashed with Rockerfile’s full path and the directories it shares. So as long as your Rockerfile has the same name and it is in the same place — same volume containers will be used.

Note that Rocker is not tracking changes in mounted directories, so no changes can affect caching. Cache will be busted only if you change list of mounts, add or remove them. In future, we may add some configuration flags, so you can specify if you want to watch the actual mount contents changes, and make them invalidate the cache.

To force cache invalidation you can always use --no-cache or --reload-cache flags for rocker build command. But you will then need a lot of patience.

Example usage

FROM grammarly/nodejs:latest
ADD . /src                                      #1
WORKDIR /src                                
MOUNT /src/node_modules /src/bower_components   #2
MOUNT {{ .Env.GIT_SSH_KEY }}:/root/.ssh/id_rsa  #3
RUN npm install                                 #4
RUN cp -R /src /app                             #5
WORKDIR /app                                 
CMD ["/usr/bin/node", "index.js"]
  1. We add the whole current directory into a path /src inside the container. Note that the ADD command is executed by Docker and a fancy caching mechanism is applied here. So every time something changes within the directory, Docker will invalidate the cache, and all following commands will be re-executed. That’s why we want to keep npm stuff somewhere, to not run it from scratch.
  2. Over already existing /src directory, we mount two volumes, so everything npm and bower will put there will be reused by following builds. Note that these directories will not remain in the image, so we have to copy the whole thing to keep it, as you will see below.
  3. Mount our git ssh key from host machine, so a private repositories can be fetched by npm and bower. We should have GIT_SSH_KEY env variable exported (referring to a key file) while running build command.
  4. Install the app. Here, something interesting happens. Normally, Rocker passes RUN commands straight to Docker. Unless it sees any MOUNT commands above. It this case, Rocker will execute RUN itself mounting desired volumes in the background.
  5. Copy the whole app (with it’s dependencies) to a new folder, so we can keep node_modules and bower_components directories inside the image. Remember that mounted directories are transient. This will not be needed for languages like Java for which the resulting artifact contains everything it needs and the dependency cache can be kept in a separate directory.

Another example

FROM debian:jessie
ADD . /src
WORKDIR /src                                    
RUN make
MOUNT .:/context                                #1
RUN cp program.o /context/program_linux_x86     #2
  1. Here we mount the current directory from host machine, so we can copy files straight from the image. The directory can now be addressed inside the image by the path /context. So, everything we copy there will appear in our current directory.
  2. Copy the compiled program to /context (the current directory on host machine)

This approach can be used if we want to use Docker for the build context, while keeping our machine and source directory clean.

# build image
FROM google/golang:1.4
MOUNT .:/src
RUN CGO_ENABLED=0 go build -a -installsuffix cgo -v -o rocker.o rocker.go

# run image
FROM busybox
ADD rocker.o /bin/rocker
CMD ["/bin/rocker"]

Yes. There are two FROMs in a single Rockerfile. This is useful when we want to have different images for building and running the application (build image and run image). The point is that the resulting image weights just 4.3Mb, while the build image is 611Mb.

The first image puts the statically compiled binary into our context directory. The second one simply picks it through the ADD instruction.

Rocker executes them in a row as a single Dockerfile. The only exception is that MOUNTs are not shared between FROMs, if you want, you have to declare them again.



EXPORT /path/to/file /to/path




IMPORT /exported/path /to/path

Sometimes you don’t want to use a context directory but, instead, to directly pass files from one image to another. Also, copying is not the most efficient way of dealing with large directory trees. That’s when EXPORT/IMPORT comes handy.

Let’s take our previous example and rewrite it to use EXPORT/IMPORT.

FROM google/golang:1.4
ADD . /src
RUN CGO_ENABLED=0 go build -a -installsuffix cgo -v -o rocker.o rocker.go
EXPORT rocker.o                    #1

FROM busybox
IMPORT rocker.o /bin/rocker        #2
CMD ["/bin/rocker"]

This Rockerfile gives the same result as the previous one. But nothing is placed in our current directory. How does it happen? Rocker creates a shared volume container and uses rsync to copy files. With EXPORT, it copies from image to a volume container, with IMPORT it does the opposite.

The following rsync commands will be executed behind the scenes:

  1. /opt/rsync/bin/rsync-static -a --delete-during rocker.o /.rocker_exports
  2. /opt/rsync/bin/rsync-static -a /.rocker_exports/rocker.o /bin/rocker

Where /.rocker_exports is a mounted volume container directory.

  1. Mount volume container will be reused between builds. It’s name is hashed by the full path of a Rockerfile. [trade-off] So as long as your Rockerfile is in same directory and has the same name, mount volume container will be kept.
  2. All EXPORTs/IMPORTs within a Rockerfile share the same mount volume container directory [trade-off]
  3. For both EXPORT and IMPORT, the destination folder will not be created automatically if it didn't exist before, so you have to manually create subdirectories before doing import.
  4. EXPORT will be cached until it’s volume container is removed or the command value changes
  5. All subsequent IMPORTs cache depend on the last EXPORT cache id, so as long as the last EXPORT is cached, all IMPORTs will be cached too.

If you omit a destination argument specifying only source, both EXPORT and IMPORT will add "/" as a destination automatically.

EXPORT /src     # will be EXPORT /src /
IMPORT /src     # will be IMPORT /src /

As mentioned earlier, root folder for exports and imports is a shared volume, which is located in /.rocker_exports, so to clarify it completely, the following will happen:

EXPORT /src /     # will rsync /src /.rocker_exports
IMPORT /src /     # will rsync /.rocker_exports/src /

Be careful with paths

If you are going to export directories, not single files, you have to consider using a trailing slash "/". That matters for rsync. To get an intuitively expected behavior, you have to add a slash to the end of source directory being exported.

FROM debian:jessie
ADD . /src
RUN cd src && make

EXPORT /src            # will be /.rocker_exports/src 
EXPORT /src  /app      # will be /.rocker_exports/app/src
EXPORT /src/ /app      # will be /.rocker_exports/app   -- which is the most expected behavior

A few recipes

If you have a directory in the build image and you want the same one in the run image:

FROM debian:jessie
ADD . /src
RUN cd src && make

FROM debian:jessie

The same, but you want the directory to be named differently in the run image:

FROM debian:jessie
ADD . /src
RUN cd src && make
EXPORT /src/ /app

FROM debian:jessie
FROM google/golang:1.4
ADD . /src
RUN go build -v -o /bin/rocker rocker.go
CMD ["/bin/rocker"]
TAG grammarly/rocker:1

TODO: note about the need of explicit :latest

It simply tags the image at the current build stage. Possibly interesting feature is that you actually can use it anywhere in between commands.

FROM google/golang:1.4
ADD . /src
TAG rocker-before-compile                             # here
RUN go build -v -o /bin/rocker rocker.go
CMD ["/bin/rocker"]
TAG grammarly/rocker:1

Same as TAG, but it pushes to a registry if --push flag is passed to rocker build command. If the flag is not passed, it just TAGs. Useful for CI.

FROM google/golang:1.4
CMD ["/bin/rocker"]
PUSH grammarly/rocker:1

rocker uses Go's text/template to pre-process Rockerfiles prior to execution. We extend it with additional helpers from rocker/template package that is shared with rocker-compose as well.


FROM google/golang:1.4
CMD ["/bin/rocker"]
PUSH grammarly/rocker:{{ .Version }}

Pass the Version variable this way:

rocker build -var Version=0.1.22

You can also test rendered Rockerfile by using -print option:

$ rocker build -var Version=0.1.22 -print
FROM google/golang:1.4
CMD ["/bin/rocker"]
PUSH grammarly/rocker:0.1.22


ATTACH allows you to run an intermediate step interactively. For example, if you are debugging a Rockerfile, you can simply place ATTACH in the middle of it, and have an interactive shell within a container, with all volumes mounted properly.

It is also useful for making development containers:

FROM phusion/passenger-ruby22


MOUNT /var/lib/gems
MOUNT {{ .Env.GIT_SSH_KEY }}:/root/.ssh/id_rsa
MOUNT .:/src

RUN ["bundle", "install"]

ATTACH ["/bin/bash"]

With this Rockerfile, you can play with your Ruby application within the source tree by simply running rocker build --attach. Note that ruby gems will be isolated for this particular app.


  • If no argument is specified, the last CMD will be taken
  • ATTACH works only with rocker build --attach flag specified. So you can leave the ATTACH instructions in the Rockerfile and nobody will be interrupted unless --attach is specified.

Starting from v1.1.0 Rocker supports pushing to alternative storages other than common Docker Registry.

Amazon S3

It is possible to store images directly on S3, so there is no complex logic of layers uploading in the pipeline.

FROM alpine:3.2

Rocker will push the image directly to S3, without event using Docker daemon for that.

You can pull images directly from S3 as well:


Since you can't just easily docker pull the image that is stored on S3, you can be creative and do something like this, because why the hell not:

echo "FROM" | rocker build -f -

Or just use rocker pull command :)

rocker pull

There should be AWS credentials in place, either exported as environment variables or present in ~/.aws/credentials. For more information how to set up an environment, see this doc.

Amazon ECR

Rocker also brings convenience to the usage of Amazon ECR. The issue is that ECR uses an external authentication mechanism. It is not always convenient, especially for using with continuous integration tools. That is why Rocker does all of the external machinery for you behind the scenes, all you need is to have appropriate AWS credentials present, same as for S3.

For more information about working with ECR, follow their documentation.



(where 12345 is your account id)

  1. See Rocker’s Rockerfile as an example
  2. See Rsync Rockerfile
  3. See Example Rockerfile
  4. Use Rockerfile.tmLanguage for SublimeText


Rocker uses GO15VENDOREXPERIMENT, so all dependencies are vendored and I'm afraid you will need at least Golang v1.5 to be able to compile.

Please, use gofmt in order to automatically re-format Go code into vendor standardized convention. Ideally, you have to set it on post-save action in your IDE. For SublimeText3, the GoSublime package does the right thing. Also, solution for Intellij IDEA.


You can build Rocker as any other Golang package. Rocker is also go-gettable.



go get -u

or build for all platforms:


To run unit tests you should run:

And for integration tests:

Also a useful thing to have:

echo "make test" > .git/hooks/pre-push && chmod +x .git/hooks/pre-push

Don't be afraid of looking under the hood of Makefile to figure out how to run particular test cases.

grep -R TODO **/*.go | grep -v '^vendor/'

(c) Copyright 2015 Grammarly, Inc.

Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at

Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.