Templating engines in PHP - Follow-Up | Articles - Fabien Potencier


My post about template engines in PHP received more than 70 comments as of now, and counting. That's a lot considering most of them are really well thought out, and backed with solid counter-arguments. Thanks everybody for taking the time to participate constructively to the discussion. I'm really proud that the PHP community (or at least the small part which reads my blog) is able to discuss such a touchy topic without immediately starting a flame war! I'm also impressed about how many people need to promote their own template engines ;)

Before I try to answer some questions, I'd like to reinstate that I like PHP templates. And you should remember that symfony has only used plain old PHP templates since the beginning. As a matter of fact, I'm been advocating about using PHP templates since my first PHP project, and I have never used any other PHP template engines. So, I'm not against PHP templates; I just find that some PHP limitations as a template language are more and more irritating for me.

And as Eli has pointed out, "[I probably have] grossly undersold PHP-as-template in [my] enthusiasm to promote [my] new templating language that [I] created".

I also like Tchalvak comment: "The question of PHP vs a templating engine isn't the essential one, the essential (and easily answerable one) is templates vs. no templates. Templates - and the separation of display vs. application logic that they bring with them - are a necessity. What form they come in is much less important.". He sums up really well the question. More on that later on.

I understand all the points raised in the comments, and I basically agree with most of them. Now, let me answer some of the more interesting questions.

Twig Background#

I started to look for a template engine a few months ago. People who know me also know that I don't like to reinvent the wheel. So, I didn't want to create a new library from scratch.

I looked for a good template engines, I tried some of them, and finally found Twig. But as soon as I started to use it, I found that it was exactly what the gem I was looking for (because of the features it already had and also because of its clean and beautiful architecture). As Twig was not a standalone project, but rather an embedded project, I started to hack it a bit, and after I made several enhancements like the sandboxing feature, I decided to contact Armin to discuss the future of Twig.

So, you are not sold... yet?#

Even if you don't buy my arguments, that's fine. I don't want Twig to become the universal template language for PHP, far from it. I really think there is a market for template engines like Twig, but I'm the first to recognize that it won't be used for all PHP projects to come!

If you are looking for a templating engine that only uses PHP and have built-in support for template inheritance, blocks, helpers, and some more, the good news is that I have coded one some weeks ago under the Symfony Templating Component name. It's a standalone component, which has no other dependencies, and I'm sure most people wanting to use plain PHP for their projects will love this project.

And better yet, you can use both Twig and the Symfony Templating component to have the best of both worlds. Use the component for all your templates and Twig if you need the sandboxing feature.

About the Syntax#

Lots of comments about the syntax, and the problem I raised about the PHP syntax. It's not about having a prettier syntax and if you think that the syntax issues I mentioned are mostly bikeshed color arguments, think again.

One of the key point of my reasoning is that a good template language should aim to find the sweet spot. The template language should find the best compromise about too many and not enough features. As I said in my previous post, the template language is all about presentation logic. And of course, simple conditions and loops are part of the presentation logic. But do you want to use array_chunk() in a template? Probably not. This call belongs to the controller or the model, depending on what you want to do.

Also, templates are about a lot of HTML with some PHP. So, this kind of code snippet is a big no-no for me in a template:


Many people seem to like the PHP short tags. First, about the math. If you compare with , the difference is 7 characters, not 2. But that's really not the main problem.

Apart from problems like XML support, the short_open_tag setting, the shared hosts configuration issue, and some more, it's also about coding standards:

  • PEAR:

    "Always use to delimit PHP code, not the shorthand. This is required for PEAR compliance and is also the most portable way to include PHP code on differing operating systems and setups."

  • Zend:

    "Short tags are never allowed."

The Pear and Zend projects are serious, so there should have some reasons to disallow short tags, no?

But as Eli mentioned in his post, I would also like to see a PHP evolution to take this problem into account: "... there are a number of people (including myself [Eli]), who have been tossing around the idea of proposing a new option to the short_tags directive for PHP, allowing not just having them turned on or off. But allowing a 3rd option, that would enable while disabling "

About Web Designers#

The debate is not about if web designers should understand PHP or not. And it's certainly not about web designers not being smart enough. Of course web designers can learn a bit of PHP... until they learn too much and start getting stuff that do not belong to the template in their templates (like getting records directly from the database, anyone?) Oh, of course, they won't do such a mistake it they have also learned about the MVC pattern. But then, they are not web designers anymore, they are web developers.

Finding this good balance is all about providing a tool that tries to help web designers not to shoot themselves in the foot. And I think everybody will be with me if I say that PHP does a poor job setting the limits.

Output Escaping#

Some commenters advocate that output escaping should be done in the controllers. That cannot work. As John Campbell writes: "The problem is that the controller can't possibly be aware of the context of the output, nor understand which type of escaping is correct."

The issue is therefore not that simple. On the one hand, developers should take care of output escaping, but it cannot be done in controllers. On the other hand, web designers should not have to take care about output escaping, but templates is the only place where you have enough context information to apply sensible escaping. That's why automatic output escaping seems the best compromise to me, plus the fact that being "almost" secure by default is a big advantage.

Speaking of automatic escaping, I'm probably someone who knows a lot about it as symfony has this feature since early 2006. I can tell you that the performance overhead of such a feature is very high. In Twig, it is added during compilation, so there is no overhead whatsoever.

About Sandboxing#

The sandbox feature is not targeted at web designers. It is mainly useful for situation where external people can change the templates (think of webmasters able to configure their CMS or blogging platform templates from a backend interface).

The Dwoo and Smarty security feature is a right step in that direction, but not as powerful as a full sandbox feature. As far as I understand, it's mainly about allowing PHP code or not in the templates, and restricting the PHP functions you can use (of course, correct me if I'm wrong).

Sandboxing controls everything, from the tags you can use, to the methods you can call on the objects (the Twig documentation explains the concept and how it works).

About Speed#

Most template engines compile the templates down to PHP code. So, the speed of lexing, parsing, and compiling is not that relevant. What matters is the speed of the evaluation. Here is the compiled version of the Hello {{ name }} template:

/* Hello {{ name }} */
class __TwigTemplate_1121b6f109fe93ebe8c6e22e3712bceb extends Twig_Template
  public function display($context)

    // line 1
    echo "Hello ";
    echo (isset($context['name']) ? $context['name'] : null);

Some people were worried about debugging. As you can see, the generated code is very lean, and contains the template name and the lines of the original template. That should be more than enough to debug all the possible problems easily.

You can find it much more verbose than the PHP version, and of course, for such a contrived example, the native PHP version is insanely simpler:


But have a look at the generated code for many template engines and you will see for yourself that Twig output is one of the cleanest and shortest one.

As asked by many people, I have redone my benchmark by bypassing the compilation phase altogether (the cache has been primed before launching the benchmark scripts). As I expected, it does not change numbers significantly. The compilation of such simple templates is insignificant compared to the rendering of 10,000 compiled templates.

I have also tested plain PHP templates. So, here is the updated table:

Library Time (sec) Memory (Kb)
Plain PHP 2.4 114
Twig 3 383
PHPTAL 3.8 598
Dwoo 6.9 1,645
Smarty 2 12.9 610*
Smarty 3 14.9 799*
Calypso 34.3 614
eZ Templates 53 2,783
  • Notice that the memory used by Smarty is much lower than the memory used in my previous benchmark as I wrapped the whole loop with an ob_start()/ob_end_clean(), which was not fair comparing to the other template engines. This was fixed in this new benchmark.

So, as expected, PHP is faster than Twig for simple templates. But as templates become more complex, the difference will be less and less noticeable, due to the clean code generated by Twig.

The benchmark scripts are executed on the command line without any PHP accelerator. A PHP accelerator in this case does not help as everything is done in one single PHP process.

You can download the benchmark code here: http://fabien.potencier.org/benchmarks.tgz

Twig and Symfony#

This section is for people worried about the integration of Twig as the default template engine in symfony.

symfony 1.3/1.4#

Obvisouly, Twig won't be part of symfony 1.3 as the feature-freeze deadline is the end of next week and also because we want the symfony 1.3 release to be an evolution of symfony 1.2, and not a revolution.

If some people want to create a Twig plugin for symfony 1.3, start the discussion on the symfony developer mailing-list, and I will help you getting started.

Symfony 2.0#

As far as Symfony 2 is concerned, nothing is definitive yet, but Twig won't be the default template language. I think Twig will be available as an optional plugin, well integrated with the core. For instance, it will probably make sense to use it for the admin generator to provide some specific tags that will ease the customization of it.

And thanks to the Symfony Templating Component, developers will be able to mix PHP templates and Twig templates easily in one project, depending on their needs or the tools they want to use.

So, if you can't stand template engines, use plain PHP templates; but if you want to benefit from Twig, use it natively. And of course, if you use plugins that made the opposite choice, that won't be a problem either.


Hopefully, this new post has answered some of the points raised in the comments.