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ISO 3166-1 - Wikipedia

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ISO 3166-1 is part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and defines codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest. The official name of the standard is Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part 1: Country codes. It defines three sets of country codes:[1]

The alphabetic country codes were first included in ISO 3166 in 1974, and the numeric country codes were first included in 1981. The country codes have been published as ISO 3166-1 since 1997, when ISO 3166 was expanded into three parts, with ISO 3166-2 defining codes for subdivisions and ISO 3166-3 defining codes for former countries.[2]

As a widely used international standard, ISO 3166-1 is implemented in other standards and used by international organizations[3] to allow facilitation of the exchange of goods and information.[4] However, it is not the only standard for country codes. Other country codes used by many international organizations are partly or totally incompatible with ISO 3166-1,[5] although some of them closely correspond to ISO 3166-1 codes.

Criteria for inclusion[edit]

Currently 249 countries, territories, or areas of geographical interest are assigned official codes in ISO 3166-1. According to the ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency (ISO 3166/MA), the only way to enter a new country name into ISO 3166-1 is to have it registered in one of the following two sources:[6]

  • United Nations Terminology Bulletin Country Names, or
  • Country and Region Codes for Statistical Use of the UN Statistics Division.

To be listed in the bulletin Country Names, a country must be at least one of the following:[7]

The list of names in Country and Region Codes for Statistical Use of the UN Statistics Division is based on the bulletin Country Names and other UN sources.

Once a country name or territory name appears in either of these two sources, it will be added to ISO 3166-1 by default.

The ISO 3166/MA may reserve code elements for other entities that do not qualify for inclusion based on the above criteria.[8] For example, because the European Union is not a country, it is not formally included in ISO 3166-1, but for practical reasons, the ISO 3166/MA has "reserved the two-letter combination EU for the purpose of identifying the European Union within the framework of ISO 3166-1".[9]

Information included[edit]

ISO 3166-1 is published officially in both English and French. Since the second edition of ISO 3166-1, the following columns are included for each entry:

  1. Country Name – English (or French) short name (all upper-case)
  2. English (or French) short name (upper/lower case)
  3. English (or French) full name
  4. Alpha-2 code
  5. Alpha-3 code
  6. Numeric code
  7. Remarks
  8. Independent (# denotes the country is considered a sovereign state)
  9. Additional information: Administrative language(s) alpha-2 code element(s)
  10. Additional information: Administrative language(s) alpha-3 code element(s)
  11. Additional information: Local short name(s)

Naming and code construction[edit]

Naming and disputes[edit]

The country names used in ISO 3166-1 are taken from the two UN sources mentioned above. Some country names used by the UN, and accordingly by ISO, are subject to dispute:

Short name upper case in ISO 3166 Short name lower case in ISO 3166 Independent or not in ISO 3166 Local short name Language(s) Disputes
CHINA China Yes[10] Zhongguo Chinese Sovereignty dispute: China is de facto divided into the People's Republic of China as the full name in ISO 3166 and the Republic of China (Taiwan) not widely recognized.
CYPRUS Cyprus Yes[11] Kýpros

Kıbrıs

Greek

Turkish

Sovereignty dispute: Cyprus is de facto divided into the Republic of Cyprus as the full name in ISO 3166 and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus not widely recognized.
FALKLAND ISLANDS (MALVINAS) Falkland Islands (the) [Malvinas] No[12] Falkland Islands (the) [Malvinas] English Sovereignty dispute: The United Kingdom administers the Falkland Islands[13] and Argentina claims this group of islands as Malvinas.
MACEDONIA, THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF Macedonia (the former Yugoslav Republic of) Yes[14] Poranešna Jugoslovenska Republika Makedonija Macedonian Naming dispute: ISO 3166 follows the provisional reference used by the United Nations for the Republic of Macedonia.
PALESTINE, STATE OF Palestine, State of No[15] Dawlat Filasţīn Arabic Sovereignty dispute: Following the recognition of Palestine as a non-member UN state in 2012, the official designation used in ISO 3166-1 was changed from "Palestinian Territory, Occupied" to "Palestine, State of".[16]
TAIWAN, PROVINCE OF CHINA Taiwan (Province of China) No[17] Taiwan Chinese Sovereignty and naming dispute:[9] In 2007, the Republic of China filed a lawsuit before a Swiss civil court against the ISO, arguing that the ISO's use of the United Nations name rather than "Republic of China (Taiwan)" violates Taiwan's name rights.[18] On 9 September 2010, a panel of the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland decided, by three votes to two, to dismiss the suit as presenting a political question not subject to Swiss civil jurisdiction.[19][20][21]
WESTERN SAHARA Western Sahara No[22] Aş Şaḩrā' al Gharbīyah Arabic Sovereignty dispute: Morocco de facto controls the territory, claimed by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.

The codes are chosen, according to the ISO 3166/MA, "to reflect the significant, unique component of the country name in order to allow a visual association between country name and country code".[9] For this reason, common components of country names like "Republic", "Kingdom", "United", "Federal" or "Democratic" are normally not used for deriving the code elements. As a consequence, for example, the United Kingdom is officially assigned the alpha-2 code GB rather than UK, based on its official name "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" (although UK is reserved on the request of the United Kingdom). Some codes are chosen based on the native names of the countries. For example, Germany is assigned the alpha-2 code DE, based on its native name "Deutschland".

Current codes[edit]

Officially assigned code elements[edit]

The following is a complete ISO 3166-1 encoding list of the countries which are assigned official codes. It is listed in alphabetical order by the English short country name (upper/lower case) used by the ISO 3166/MA.[23]

Note: Each country's alpha-2 code is linked to more information about the assignment of its code elements.

Reserved and user-assigned code elements[edit]

Besides the officially assigned codes, code elements may be expanded by using either reserved codes or user-assigned codes.[24]

Reserved code elements are codes which have become obsolete, or are required in order to enable a particular user application of the standard but do not qualify for inclusion in ISO 3166-1. To avoid transitional application problems and to aid users who require specific additional code elements for the functioning of their coding systems, the ISO 3166/MA, when justified, reserves these codes which it undertakes not to use for other than specified purposes during a limited or indeterminate period of time. Codes are usually reserved for former countries, overseas territories, international organizations, and special nationality status. The reserved alpha-2 and alpha-3 codes can be divided into the following four categories (click on the links for the reserved codes of each category):

User-assigned code elements are codes at the disposal of users who need to add further names of countries, territories, or other geographical entities to their in-house application of ISO 3166-1, and the ISO 3166/MA will never use these codes in the updating process of the standard. The following codes can be user-assigned:[25]

  • Alpha-2: AA, QM to QZ, XA to XZ, and ZZ
  • Alpha-3: AAA to AAZ, QMA to QZZ, XAA to XZZ, and ZZA to ZZZ
  • Numeric: 900 to 999

Changes[edit]

The ISO 3166/MA updates ISO 3166-1 when necessary. A country is usually assigned new ISO 3166-1 codes if it changes its name or its territorial boundaries. In general, new alphabetic codes are assigned if a country changes a significant part of its name, while a new numeric code is assigned if a country changes its territorial boundaries. Codes for formerly used country names that were deleted from ISO 3166-1 are published in ISO 3166-3.

ISO used to announce changes in newsletters which updated the currently valid standard, and releasing new editions which comprise a consolidation of newsletter changes. As of July 2013, changes are published in the online catalogue of ISO only and no newsletters are published anymore. Past newsletters remain available through the search option on the ISO website.[26]

Edition/Newsletter Date issued Contents
ISO 3166:1974 1974 First edition of ISO 3166
ISO 3166:1981 1981 Second edition of ISO 3166
ISO 3166:1988 1988-08-15 Third edition of ISO 3166
ISO 3166:1994 1994-02-10 Fourth edition of ISO 3166
ISO 3166-1:1997 1997-09-25 First edition of ISO 3166-1 (ISO 3166 expanded into three parts)
Newsletter V-1 1998-02-05 Change of official name (Samoa)
Newsletter V-2 1999-10-01 Inclusion of new country name and code elements (Palestinian Territory, Occupied)
Newsletter V-3 2002-02-01 Change of alpha-3 Code Element (Romania)
Newsletter V-4 2002-05-20 Name changes (Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Fiji, Hong Kong, Kazakhstan, Kiribati, Macao, Niue, Somalia, Venezuela)
Newsletter V-5 2002-05-20 Change of names and alphabetical code elements of East Timor
Newsletter V-6 2002-11-15 Change of names of East Timor
Newsletter V-7 2003-01-14 Change of official name of Comoros
Newsletter V-8 2003-07-23 Deletion of "Yugoslavia"; inclusion of "Serbia and Montenegro" with new alphabetical code elements
Newsletter V-9 2004-02-13 Inclusion of an entry for Åland Islands
Newsletter V-10 2004-04-26 Name changes (Afghanistan, Åland Islands)
Newsletter V-11 2006-03-29 Inclusion of an entry for Jersey, Guernsey and Isle of Man. Change of remark for the United Kingdom
Newsletter V-12 2006-09-26 Inclusion of the new entries for "Serbia" and "Montenegro" (replacing Serbia and Montenegro)
ISO 3166-1:2006 2006-11-20 Second edition of ISO 3166-1
ISO 3166-1:2006/
Cor 1:2007
2007-07-15 First Technical Corrigendum to ISO 3166-1:2006
Newsletter VI-1 2007-09-21 Assignment of code elements for Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin and update of France and other French Territories (French Polynesia, French Southern Territories, Guadeloupe, Réunion)
Newsletter VI-2 2008-03-31 Name changes for Moldova, Montenegro and other minor corrections (Madagascar, Palestinian Territory, Occupied, Saint Barthélemy)
Newsletter VI-3 2008-09-09 Name change for Nepal and other minor corrections (Greenland, Guernsey, Moldova, Nigeria)
Newsletter VI-4 2009-01-07 Name change for the Republic of Moldova and other minor corrections (Central African Republic, Comoros)
Newsletter VI-5 2009-03-03 Name change for Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and other minor corrections (Kiribati, Tuvalu)
Newsletter VI-6 2009-05-08 Name change for Plurinational State of Bolivia
Newsletter VI-7 2010-02-22 Name change for Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
Newsletter VI-8 2010-12-15 Code elements for Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten (Dutch part), update of other territories (Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles) and minor corrections (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia)
Newsletter VI-9 2011-06-12
(corrected
2011-07-14)
Name changes for Fiji and Myanmar as well as other minor corrections (Åland Islands, Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba, Bulgaria, Netherlands, Niue)
Newsletter VI-10 2011-08-09 Code elements for South Sudan (and new numeric code for Sudan)
Newsletter VI-11 2011-11-08 Name change for Libya
Newsletter VI-12 2012-02-15 Name change for Hungary and other minor corrections (Bangladesh, Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba, Central African Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Germany)
Newsletter VI-13 2012-08-02 Name change for Eritrea and other minor corrections (Germany, Sri Lanka)
Newsletter VI-14 2013-02-06 Name change for State of Palestine and other minor corrections (Bulgaria, Bouvet Island, Jersey, Saint Martin (French part), Seychelles, Sint Maarten (Dutch part), Viet Nam)
Newsletter VI-15 2013-05-10 Name change for Papua New Guinea
Newsletter VI-16 2013-07-11 Name change for Somalia
ISO 3166-1:2013 2013-11-19 Third edition of ISO 3166-1 (changes are published in the online catalogue of ISO only and no newsletters are published anymore)

See also[edit]

  • ISO 639Codes for the representation of names of languages

References[edit]

Sources and external links[edit]